Endocytosis in microcystis aeruginosa accelerates the synthesis of microcystins in the presence of lanthanum(III)
Liu, YQ (Liu, Yongqiang)[ 1 ] ; Yang, Q (Yang, Qing)[ 2 ] ; Zhu, MJ (Zhu, Mengjue)[ 3 ] ; Wang, LH (Wang, Lihong)[ 3 ] ; Zhou, Q (Zhou, Qing)[ 3 ] ; Yang, ZB (Yang, Zhenbiao)[ 4,5 ] ; Huang, XH (Huang, Xiaohua)[ 1 ]*（黄晓华）
[ 1 ] Nanjing Normal Univ, Natl & Local Joint Engn Res Ctr Biomed Funct Mat, Jiangsu Collaborat Innovat Ctr Biomed Funct Mat, Sch Chem & Mat Sci, Nanjing 210023, Peoples R China
[ 2 ] Nanjing Normal Univ, Sch Life Sci, Nanjing 210023, Peoples R China
[ 3 ] Jiangnan Univ, State Key Lab Food Sci & Technol, Wuxi 214122, Jiangsu, Peoples R China
[ 4 ] Univ Calif Riverside, Ctr Plant Cell Biol, Inst Integrat Genome Biol, Riverside, CA 92521 USA
[ 5 ] Univ Calif Riverside, Dept Bot & Plant Sci, Riverside, CA 92521 USA
Microcystis aeruginosa bloom releases microcystins (MCs) into global aquatic environment, which other living organisms can ingest the released MCs. The toxic effects of MCs on organisms are amplified through the food chain, threatening human and animal health. Lanthanum(III) [La(III)], a pollutant in aquatic environments worldwide, has been confirmed to stimulate MC synthesis in M. aeruginosa. However, the involved cellular mechanism remains unclear. Here, using interdisciplinary approaches, it was first observed that La(III) activated the clathrin-mediated endocytosis in M. aeruginosa. This allowed the algal cells to rapidly absorb macro-elements (C, N and P) and micro-elements (K, Ca and Mg) through the clathrin-mediated endocytosis. These in turn stimulated chlorophyll production, photosynthesis, the growth of the algal cells, and the increases in the productions of MC-LW, MC-LR and MC-YR in M. aeruginosa. These results provide valuable insights for understanding the involved cellular mechanism on MC synthesis and managing MC pollution, which is important to protect global food chain and the ecosystem.