Arabinogalactan Proteins Are the Possible Extracellular Molecules for Binding Exogenous Cerium(III) in the Acidic Environment Outside Plant Cells
Yang, Q (Yang, Qing)[ 1 ] ; Wang, LH (Wang, Lihong)[ 2 ] ; He, JF (He, Jingfang)[ 1 ] ; Wei, HY (Wei, Haiyan)[ 1 ] ; Yang, ZB (Yang, Zhenbiao)[ 3 ] ; Huang, XH (Huang, Xiaohua)[ 1 ]*（黄晓华）
[ 1 ] Nanjing Normal Univ, Natl & Local Joint Engn Res Ctr Biomed Funct Mat, Sch Chem & Mat Sci, Jiangsu Collaborat Innovat Ctr Biomed Funct Mat, Nanjing, Jiangsu, Peoples R China
[ 2 ] Jiangnan Univ, State Key Lab Food Sci & Technol, Wuxi, Peoples R China
[ 3 ] Univ Calif Riverside, Inst Integrat Genome Biol, Ctr Plant Cell Biol, Riverside, CA 92521 USA
FRONTIERS IN PLANT SCIENCE，201902,10,153
Rare earth elements [REE(III)] increasingly accumulate in the atmosphere and can be absorbed by plant leaves. Our previous study showed that after treatment of REE(III) on plant, REE(III) is first bound by some extracellular molecules of plant cells, and then the endocytosis of leaf cells will be initiated, which terminates the endocytic inertia of leaf cells. Identifying the extracellular molecules for binding REE(III) is the crucial first step to elucidate the mechanism of REE(III) initiating the endocytosis in leaf cells. Unfortunately, the molecules are unknown. Here, cerium(III) [Ce(III)] and Arabidopsis served as a representative of REE(III) and plants, respectively. By using interdisciplinary methods such as confocal laser scanning microscopy, immune-Au and fluorescent labeling, transmission electron microscope (TEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy, circular dichroism spectroscopy, fluorescent spectrometry and molecular dynamics simulation, we obtained two important discoveries: first, the arabinogalactan proteins (AGP) inside leaf cells were sensitively increased in protein expression and recruited onto the plasma membrane; second, to verify whether AGP can bind to Ce(III) in the acidic environment outside leaf cells, by choosing fasciclin-like AGP11 (AtFLA11) as a representative of AGP, we found that Ce(III) can form stable [Ce(H2O)(7)](III)-AtFLA11 complexes with an apparent binding constant of 1.44 x 10(-6) in simulated acidic environment outside leaf cells, in which the secondary and tertiary structure of AtFLA11 was changed. The structural change in AtFLA11 and the interaction between AtFLA11 and Ce(III) were enhanced with increasing the concentration of Ce(III). Therefore, AtFLA11 can serve as Lewis bases to coordinately bind to Ce(III), which broke traditional chemical principle. The results confirmed that AGP can be the possible extracellular molecules for binding to exogenous Ce(III) outside leaf cells, and provided references for elucidating the mechanism of REE(III) initiating the endocytosis in leaf cells.